世卫组织新报告:用法律促进健康权利
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  墨西哥的碳酸饮料税,南非的限盐,澳大利亚的烟草平装,加纳的国民健康保险,越南的骑摩托车强制佩戴头盔,美国的医疗服务……
全世界有数百个法律在保护及促进健康方面发挥重要作用的案例,这些只是寥寥数例。


  近日,世卫组织与国际发展法组织(IDLO)、悉尼大学和华盛顿的乔治敦大学合作发布的新报告——《促进健康权利,法律至关重要》——阐述了法律让公众健康发生重大变化的众多方式。该报告专门介绍了世界各地有关法律如何改善健康与安全的案例研究,为各国学习别国的经验提供了资料。


  “本报告中的一些优秀案例采用了全人群的干预措施来改变人们做出生活方式选择的整体环境。在面对巨大商业利益时,政府需要显示出超常的责任感、勇气和毅力。”—— Rüdiger Krech博士(世卫组织日内瓦总部,卫生系统与创新部门负责人)


  世卫组织《组织法》庄严地明确了健康权,确认了享有最高可致健康水平是基本人权之一。世卫组织协助各国利用法律来改善其卫生系统和应对各种健康威胁。


  远在1875年,英国立法者就通过立法,要求房主提供适当的卫生、通风、下水设施,以防止传染病蔓延。今天,传染病防控是法律如何改变人类健康的最有说服力的例证之一。从天花疫情到较近的SARS和埃博拉疫情,都显示了公共卫生法有助于加强筛查、报告、接触者追踪和检疫,阻断感染的蔓延。

  当卫生法直接影响到人们的日常消费模式时,往往会成为新闻热点。比如,墨西哥2014年为减少含糖饮料的消费而开征的“碳酸饮料税”;澳大利亚的烟草制品平装法开启了全球以此手段降低吸烟率的先河。


  “借法律之力减少吸烟是伟大的公共卫生成就之一,但在不健康饮食、酗酒、伤害、精神卫生方面,我们还有很多工作要做。本报告为借力循证的法律手段改善人类健康与福祉,提供了一种途径。”
—— Lawrence Gostin教授美国乔治敦大学奥尼尔国家及,全球卫生法律研究所系主任


  很多国家还间接地利用法律来加强卫生系统,为实现全民健康覆盖助力。有些国家借助法律建立国民健康保险、药品监管机构、卫生服务质量保证机构等卫生系统治理体制,为全体人民服务。全球艾滋病防治工作证明了法律如何保护人民不受歧视,如何促进减害和治疗服务的提供。

  法律将是各国逐步实现可持续发展目标卫生相关子目标的重要工具。

  “在更加有效地利用法律来加强卫生系统和改善人们生活方面,尚有着巨大的待发掘的空间。卫生法是有助于人们生活得更长寿更健康、经济更具持久力的有力手段。”—— Roger Magnusson教授(报告作者之一、悉尼大学卫生法与治理教授)


  法律可以保护健康,法律缺失或不受重视则会让全体人民面临健康威胁。有些国家对烟草制品监管薄弱,让大烟草公司肆无忌惮地开展营销,诱惑年轻人吸烟。在全球层面,世卫组织《国际卫生条例》和《烟草控制框架公约》为应对突发公共卫生事件和全球烟草流行提供了法律框架,而部分国家不遵守上述法规,则会让全世界都面临发生灾难性疫情的风险以及遭受吸烟对健康的危害和长远的损失。

  不幸的是,法律可以而且也曾被用于危害健康。人们利用法律囚禁精神病患者,无视他们有获得所需服务的权利;同样,西非埃博拉疫情期间的旅行限制妨碍了医务人员进入受累国家,延长了疫情持续时间。但如果掌握法律来保护、促进和推动健康权,法律将是我们强有力的同盟军。

  “本报告最有用的一点是它将人权与突发公共卫生挑战相关联。这一思路依据的不歧视、参与、透明和问责的原则,是确保应对工作符合当地实情并可持续的最佳方式。” —— David Patterson(国际发展法组织卫生法规划负责人)

New report offers global resource on using the law to improve health

Soda tax in Mexico. Salt limits in South Africa. Plain tobacco packaging in Australia. National health insurance in Ghana. Mandatory motorcycle helmets in Vietnam. Health care in the United States of America.

They're just some of the hundreds of examples of the vital role the law plays in safeguarding and promoting good health around the world.


A new report from WHO, in collaboration with the International Development Law Organization (IDLO), the University of Sydney, and Georgetown University in Washington, DC, describes the many ways in which the law makes a crucial difference for public health. The report features case studies from around the world on how the law has improved the health and safety of populations, providing a resource for countries to learn from the experience of others.

"Some of the best examples in this report use population-wide interventions to reshape the environments in which people make their lifestyle choices," said Dr Rüdiger Krech, Director in the Health Systems and Innovation cluster at WHO in Geneva. "This requires extraordinary government commitment, courage, and persistence in the face of powerful commercial interests."

The right to health is enshrined in WHO’s constitution, which affirms that the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health as one of the fundamental rights of every human. WHO provides assistance to countries that are seeking to use the law to improve their health systems, and to address health threats.

As far back as 1875, lawmakers in the United Kingdom passed legislation requiring landlords to provide proper sanitation, ventilation and drainage to stem the spread of infectious diseases. Today, the control of infectious diseases is one of the most powerful illustrations of how the law can make a difference to health. From smallpox to more recent outbreaks of SARS and Ebola, public health laws can help to improve screening, reporting, contact tracing and quarantine, stemming the spread of infections.

Health laws often make the headlines when they have a direct impact on the everyday consumption patterns of people, such as Mexico’s so-called soda tax, introduced in 2014 to reduce the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In the same vein, Australia’s plain packaging laws for tobacco products have become a global standard-bearer in the effort to reduce smoking rates.

"The use of law to reduce smoking has been one of the great public health achievements, but there is so much more we could do with unhealthy foods, excessive alcohol use, injuries, and mental health," said Prof Lawrence Gostin, faculty director of the O’Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law at Georgetown University. "This report offers a pathway to using evidence-based legal interventions for human health and wellbeing."

Countries also use the law in many unseen ways to strengthen health systems and help make progress towards universal health coverage. Some countries use laws to create the institutions that govern health systems, such as national health insurers, or agencies that regulate medicines or ensure quality health services are available to all people. The global response to HIV has demonstrated how law can protect people from discrimination, and facilitate access to harm reduction services and treatment.

The law will be a vital tool for countries to make progress towards the health-related targets in the Sustainable Development Goals.

"There is tremendous, untapped potential to use law more effectively to strengthen health systems and change lives for the better," said Prof Roger Magnusson, professor of health law and governance at the University of Sydney, and one of the report’s authors. "The law is a powerful tool to help people live longer and healthier lives, and for economies to be more resilient."

While laws can help to protect health, their absence or neglect can expose entire populations to health threats. Weak regulation of tobacco products in some countries allows powerful companies to market those products unfettered, and to recruit young smokers. At a global level, WHO’s International Health Regulations and Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide legal frameworks for responding to public health emergencies and the global tobacco epidemic. But the failure of some countries to comply with them puts the world at risk of potentially catastrophic outbreaks and the long-term costs and health impacts of smoking.

And unfortunately, the law can and has been used to harm health. Laws have been used to incarcerate people with mental illness, and to deny them the rights and services they need. Likewise, travel restrictions during West Africa’s Ebola outbreak prevented medical personnel from getting into the affected countries, prolonging the epidemic.

But when harnessed to protect, promote and advance the right to health, the law can be a potent ally.

"One of the most useful aspects of this report is that it links human rights to urgent public health challenges," said David Patterson, IDLO’s program manager for health law. "This approach, based on non-discrimination, participation, transparency and accountability, is the best way to ensure that responses are locally appropriate and sustainable."

To read the full report, please click the “Read more” in below.

内容来自世界卫生组织微信平台